Georgia, one of the most ancient countries in the world, is situated at the cross-roads of Europe and Asia. About the size of Switzerland or West Virginia, Georgia’s most part is located in the South Caucasus, while a portion of the territory lies in the North Caucasus.
It occupies 69,700 sq. km (26,911 sq. miles) between the Black and Caspian Seas, with a population of about 4.7 million people.
In the north, Georgia has a 723km common border with Russia, specifically with the Northern Caucasus federal district. The following Russian republics/subdivisions – from west to east – border Georgia: Krasnodar Krai, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia – Alania, Ingushetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan. Georgia also shares borders with Azerbaijan (322km) to the south-east, Armenia (164km) to the south, and Turkey (252km) to the south-west.
The Greater Caucasus Range separates Georgia from the North Caucasian Republics of Russia. The southern portion of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The main Caucasus Range is much higher in elevation than the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, with the highest peaks rising more than 5,000 meters (16,400ft) above sea level.
Major rivers: Mtkvari -1364 km; Tergi-623 km; Chorokhi-438 km; Alazani-351 km; Rioni-327km and Enguri-213 km.
Major cities: Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Gori, Rustavi, Poti, Sokhumi, Gagra, Chiatura, Tkibuli, Tskaltubo, Tskhinvali.
Administrative division: Georgia is divided into 9 regions and 2 autonomous republics. The regions are further subdivided into 73 districts.
Georgia is situated on the north edge of subtropical zone and its high mountains, hills, valleys, plateaus, tablelands make very complicated relief. Caucasian highlands, plains, mountains of Minor Caucasus, volcanic mountains of South Georgia are main parts of Georgian relief. By Likchi range Georgia is divided in two parts - west and east.
Caucasian highland consists of great number of mountain ranges, ravines, canyons, hollows and differs from other highlands with continuous unbroken by ravines range. Shkchara (5068 m.), Tetnuldi (4851), Ushba (4700), Jangitau (5058) are highest mountain tops of west Georgia. Kazbegi (5033), Tebulos Mta (4493), Diklos Mta (4285) – are the highest tops of East Georgia. Caucasus range conditionally is divided in three: central, east and west parts. Whole length of central Caucasus is located in Georgia, west and east partly. Plain of Georgia is divided in two parts by Likchi range - Kolkcheti and Iveria plains. Each of them basically is presented with valleys and hills. Mepistskaro (2850), Shaviklde (2850), are the highest tops of Minor Caucasus Range. Shavsheti, Meskcheti, Trialeti, Loqi, Arsiani Range, the mountain assembly of middle Khrami and Samtskche Hollow are consistent parts of Small Caucasus. Wide valleys formed on the high absolute height make Volcanic Mountains of South Georgia different from the other parts of the country relief. Mountain Didi Abuli (3301) is the highest top of this relief. Javakcheti, Tsalka, Gomareti, Dmanisi and Kvemo Kartli plateaus, Erusheti, Nialiskuri, Samsari and Javakcheti ranges are main parts of Volcanic mountains of South Georgia.
The geological constitution, characterized by the precipitation is basically of Mesozoic and Cainozoic eras. According to the wrinkles it is divided into several geotectonic units: from North to South by Caucasian main ring's Antiklinorium, main Caucasian range, wrinkles system, Georgian Belt, Adjara-Trialeti system, Artvin-Bolnisi Belt and Loc-Karabag's wrinkled zone.
Georgia is rich by mineral resources: oil, coal, peat, iron, magnum, copper, projectile-zinc, arsenic, mercury, andezit, barite, talc, serpentit, agate, quartz, basalt, granite, diorite, marble, etc.
There are about 2000 mineral springs in Georgia and 32 health resorts function on the basis of mineral waters. 600 mouths and bore holes are characterized by free educe of carbon dioxide (Carbon dioxide content: 97-100 %.)
Borjomi, Sairme, Nabeglavi, Dzau, Lugela, Skuri sparkling waters are high in mineral content. They are bottled for sale and are widely consumed for their curative and digestive properties. Factories collecting and producing for local and international markets are mostly located in these famous spa towns of the same names.
Georgia is very rich with its inner waters: rivers, lakes, water pools, underground waters and bogs. There are about 25 075 rivers in Georgia, a part of them belongs to the Black Sea basin, and another part to Caspian Sea basin. Mtkvari is the greatest river of Georgia (400 km. length on Georgian territory). It starts from mountains of Turkey and falls into Caspian Sea in the territory of Azerbaijan. Rivers of west Georgia are independently flowing into Black Sea. There are about 860 lakes in Georgia. Ritsa is the deepest lake in the whole Caucasus and Tabatskuri Lake is the biggest in its capacity.
The water of main 12 water pools of Georgia is used for irrigation and power plants: Enguri, Shauri, Tkibuli, Vartsikhe, Algeti, Djinvali etc. 688 glaciers of Georgia are located only in Caucasus main range. Glaciers are well developed in the West Georgia, prolonged from river Bzipi source to Mamisoni mountain path. Main part of Kolkheti valley is covered with bogs. Small ones are located in volcanic mountains of Javakheti.